Philosophy is a greek word. 'Philo' and 'sophia'. What is the meaning?
Sophia means knowledge, empiric knowledge and philo means liking. Philosophy means love for empirical knowledge. In oxford dictionary you will find meaning, use of reasoning and argument in search of truth and in search of getting knowledge of reality. But Indian saints carry different opinion. In India we find mainly two groups: Theistic group and atheistic group. Theistic group is prominent. Atheistic is not much prominent in India. This theistic group of Indian saints as well as atheistic group call this as darshan shastra. They do not call this as philosophy. Philosophy and Darshan Shastra are not synonymous. For e.g. for dharma we say religion, but dharma is quite different from religion. We find no other alternative, so we use religion.
To attain this knowledge is actual philosophical knowledge. But this will come from those who has actual realization.
So what is the meaning of darshan shastra?
Reality is always exiting. Human beings by reasoning/ by argument can not determine actual reality. Human is finite being. He has so many drawbacks. There is weakness in heart. Knowledge is limited. Limited intellect. They cannot determine their cause. Human being is finite. Intellect is finite. Mental capacity is finite.
Anything determined by intellect is intellectually concocted thing. That is not reality. Absolute reality cannot be manufactured by conditioned soul suffering from limitations of birth, death, disease, etc. Supreme reality is always existing, He cannot be manufactured by mind. Sri Krishna says mind is material. He says mind is apara parakriti, not para. Para prakriti is superior energy. Apara is not spiritual superior energy. Apara is composed of 8 elements earth, water, air, space, heat, mind, Intelligence, perverted ego. Because of outcome of material energy of Supreme Lord, we have material mind. We cannot determine transcendental reality which is beyond comprehension. It will be foolishness to do so.
One has to find the way to see transcendental truth. We are not to manufacture. If we manufacture by reasoning and argument then the outcome is not reality but fictitious. Absolute reality cannot be manufactured by the conditioned souls of this world. So the saints say darshan shastra. This means we are not to create bhagawan. Bhagwan is there. We are created beings. We should know how to realize. Absolute reality is existing eternally and is self effulgent. He is the Cause of all cause. By His grace we can know about Him. Without His grace nobody can know.
For e.g. I want to see the Sun in the night. I have experience. I want to see something. I take help of light. Without light I cannot see. Even if I collect all the lights of city to see Sun, can you see the Sun? You may think this is the Sun, but actually this is nothing. Intrinsically quite different. Humans have got no capacity. No efforts will enable us to see the Sun. We have to wait for Sun to rise. When Sun rises, open eyes, doors, windows and you should take the grace of light of Sun. and Sun will reveal itself. One cannot see of their own efforts.
When Sun will rise, with the help of its light you will be able to see all different creatures of this world in their proper prospective.
Similarly when Supreme Lord and His transcendental knowledge which is self-effulgent will descend, we will see everything in proper prospective, including yourself otherwise you cannot see, as you are in dark.
Sri Brahma, the first creation. He also tried to know who am I?, What is this world, Who is his ultimate cause? Etc.
He performed penance of 100 years and more and then the knowledge was revealed to him
Without the grace of Supreme Lord, we may get apparent meaning, but not the real meaning. Teaching apparent meaning is like deceiving yourself as well as others. This is Darshan shastra.
Externally no one can know. The only way is to submit to spiritual channel. That is why my Paramgurudeva Srila Bhakti Siddhant Saraswati Goswami Thakura said that I pay my obeisances to preceptorial channel.
The transcendental knowledge descends. Who am I? What is ultimate reality? What is this world? What relation we have with world and Supreme Lord. All will be imparted. Any time one can get knowledge and immediately all problems will be solved. We have got misconception of our self. We are averse to Supreme Lord, hence are suffering. The best way of getting the grace is to chant His name. Sri Krishna and Sri Gita are non different. Name of Sound God. Vedas and Lord Narayan are non-different. Transcendental Name and Form of Supreme Lord are non-different.
In Kaliyuga Supreme Lord has given all powers to the Name. We can chant anytime we like.
Supreme Lord appears in different names. Govind, Ram, Narayan.
For e.g. There is one deep well and you throw bucket to pull water. With the help of rope, we can get bucket out. Sometimes that rope is torn and bucket is in the water, how can we get out? We have to drop number of nails/hooks in well and try…by that…. one of the hooks will catch the bucket and we will get bucket out. Like that we have fallen in the well of this world. We are in entanglement. How can we be rescued? Supreme Lord thought if I go in one form they will not catch me. He brought numerous avataras and alongwith numerous Names. They are like a hook. Catch any one you like. We have to simply go on uttering His Name. By other means we cannot be successful as our life is short. It is very difficulty by other means. Even in Satya yuga meditation was difficult. If we utter the holy Name we get immense benefit. While meditating our mind wanders here and there, so what are we meditating on. Sacrifice cannot be performed in Kaliyuga as pure articles are not available and rarely we will find a fully competent Brahmin to utter correct verses. Worship of deities is also not possible, as we are diseased.
The easiest way is to call Holy Name. Ajamil has named his younger son Narayan.At the time of death, the messengers came to take him to realm of Yamaraj. When he saw them he was scared. He was thinking of his son and out of fear he called Narayan. Immediately Lord Narayan sent His Associates who rescued Ajamil.
We should have firm belief. If we have belief we will get everything else we cannot get it. Faith will make it very easy, else very difficult.
This is Darshan shastra.